Car simplification: 1- what is car? P2

Posted by Wael A. Saad On Sunday, 13 May 2012 18 comments

My girl friend, she is have strong and smooth body, a beating heart “little faster but, its ok.”, a thinking brain and, a flowing blood. She can breathe, dance, drink, eat, and even she feels my sensation “yup, she is”. But she is blind “So poor :-(“. So I promised her to spend my life driving her along the off roads. 


This is true; cars bodies are made to be smooth to reduce air resistance, and strong in case of accident. Engines works as a heart to the car and its beat is varying between 800 rpm to 6500 rpm. The ECU (Electronic Control Unite) plays as the brain so that, its can think. Liquids are flowing inside the engine, brake, and the cooling system. It can breathe and drink (Air + Fuel) the Air-Fuel mixture, Dance when you drive it. Finally, eat your money if she went sick.

Car simplification
what is car? Part 2

But, how is that working together?
A great car designer’s are working to establish the relations between the discussed main parts.
                                                       “Read Part 1”.
When the relations are established, the car goes acting like human being.
Let us knew briefly, what every part is doing to establish the relation.
        1-      The Engine (Internal Combustion Engine).


What is the engine?
Engine is a mechanical device, which convert energy that exists due to combustion of air-fuel mixture into a rotational movement. [Chemical energy to Mechanical energy]
4- stroke Engine
When firing a pressurized "air-fuel mixture" that inside a sealed chamber with only one moving side (called a cylinder), an extreme explosion occurs forces the moving side to move in the opposite direction of the explosion (result of pressure increases).

The moving side (called a piston) connected by mechanical components (called connecting rod) to a type of rotating shafts with special design (called Crank Shaft). This arrangement of parts forces the crank shaft to rotate. Now the movement is established.


This cycle repeated, entering the mixture, increase the mixture pressure, firing the mixture, and let the exhaust exit.


Every step of this cycle called a stroke, which means we have four strokes in one cycle and that gives the engine another name (four – stroke engine). 
Engines commonly have an arrangement of 4, 6, 8, or 12 cylinders. Those may be arranged v-shape or in-line.    


How dose the air-fuel mixture entering the chamber?
Fuel System


There are too many ways to entering the mixture into the engine chamber. The old way is called carburetors but after development, a new era of injection systems and turbo chargers are appeared.


Injection systems are the responsible part to inject the fuel into the engine chamber while turbo charger increases the rate of air charging.

Bosch Fuel Injection System
On the other hands, at the top of every chamber a set a valves works to entering the mixture, and exiting the exhaust gases.

The four valves for each cylinder are commonly used. The 4 valves are divided (two valves for the intake, and two for the exhaust). A driving shaft (called camshaft) is swing the valves into open-close position.




But how we can ignite the mixture inside the sealed chamber?
What is gasoline and petrol? And what is the difference?

All will be answer follow the next part, to be continued……

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